Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis
Carmena, David (editor)
González-Barrio, David (editor)
Köster, Pamela Carolina (editor)
The enteric protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are the most common diarrhoea-causing protozoan parasites worldwide. Cryptosporidium spp. is a leading cause of diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years of age in poor-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Although infection by G. duodenalis is rarely a fatal condition, giardiasis is commonly associated with childhood growth faltering and cognitive impairment. Because of their significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in low-income countries, giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis joined the “Neglected Disease Initiative” launched by the World Health Organization in 2004. Both Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are ubiquitous in the environment and can infect a wide range of hosts with different specificities, meaning that humans may acquire the infection via waterborne, foodborne, or zoonotic transmission. Recent advances in detection and molecular epidemiology have indicated that certain species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis have an expanded range of suitable hosts, suggesting that their transmission pathways are more intricate than previously thought, challenging our current notion of host specificities. Therefore, there is a clear need for more studies that aim to investigate the frequency and molecular diversity of these parasites in humans, production and companion animals, and wildlife species. This information would be extremely useful to elucidate the transmission dynamics of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis and to investigate the exact contribution of zoonotic events to human infections.
KeywordsCryptosporidium; genotype; Bactrian camels; zoonotic potential; public health; Cryptosporidium parvum; subtype; bamboo rat; human pathogen; Cryptosporidium felis; 60-kDa glycoprotein; subtypes; zoonotic transmission; Giardia duodenalis; coypus (Myocastor coypus); multi-locus genotype; genetic variation; zoonotic genotypes; PCR (polymerase chain reaction); China; Giardia; Brazil; Amazon; asymptomatic; community; genotyping; indigenous; risk association; Tapirapé; transmission; Blastocystis; enteric parasites; children; diarrhoea; PCR; molecular epidemiology; Mozambique; acute diarrhea; risk factor; gp60; ssu rRNA; prevalence; GEMS; parasite; parasitology; epidemiology; genetic diversity; host specificity; Europe; Scandinavia; protist; sporozoa; zoonosis; detection; diagnosis; sensitivity; specificity; coinfection; enteric protists; Entamoeba histolytica; Blastocystis sp.; molecular diversity; Cryptosporidium cuniculus; rabbits; Egypt; gp60 gene; PCR-RFLP; zoonoses; Cryptosporidium xiaoi; subtyping; host adaptation; Enterocytozoon bieneusi; Cryptosporidium spp.; pet dogs and cats; Yunnan province; n/a
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Publication date and placeBasel, 2022
Research & information: general
Biology, life sciences