Khan, Arifa (editor)
Löchelt, Martin (editor)
Lindemann, Dirk (editor)
Foamy viruses, currently referred to as spumaretroviruses, are the most ancient retroviruses as evidenced by traces of viral sequences dispersed in all vertebrate classes from fish to mammals. Additionally, infectious foamy viruses circulate in a variety of mammalian species including simian, bovine, equine, caprine, and feline. Foamy viruses have many unique features which led to the division of the retrovirus family into two subfamilies, the Orthoretrovirinae and Spumaretrovirinae. In vitro, foamy viruses have a broad host range and in vivo, human infections have been described due to cross-species transmission from infected nonhuman primates. Thus far, there are no reports of virus-induced disease in humans or in the natural host species. These unique properties of foamy viruses have led researchers to develop foamy viruses as gene therapy vectors to study virus–virus and virus–host interactions for identifying factors involved in virus replication, transmission, and immune regulation that could influence potential clinical outcomes in humans as well as for using endogenous foamy virus sequences in the analysis of host species evolution.
Keywordsspumavirus; feline illness; proviral load; neglected virus; bovine foamy virus; infectious clone; particle release; cell-free transmission; foamy virus; spumaretrovirus; cross-species virus transmission; zoonosis; restriction factors; immune responses; FV vectors; virus replication; latent infection; feline foamy virus; epidemiology; retrovirus; Spumaretrovirus; mountain lion; Puma concolor; ELISA; protease; reverse transcriptase; RNase H; reverse transcription; antiviral drugs; resistance; simian foamy virus; gibbon; lesser apes; co-evolution; complete viral genome; equine foamy virus; isolation; Japan; sero-epidemiology; reptile foamy virus; endogenous foamy virus; endogenous retrovirus; ancient retroviruses; co-speciation; foamy virus-host interactions; viral tropism; infection; kidney; cats; chronic kidney disease; chronic renal disease; integrase; integration; co-infections; NHP; pathogenesis; zoonoses; viral prevalence; Neotropical primates; free-living primates; Brazil; new world primates; simian retrovirus; BFV; spuma virus; model system; animal model; animal experiment; miRNA function; gene expression; antiviral host restriction; gene therapy; in-vivo gene therapy; hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells; foamy virus vector; pre-clinical canine model; SCID-X1; innate sensing; cGAS; STING; foamy viruses; wild ruminants; European bison; red deer; roe deer; fallow deer; seroreactivity; inter-species transmission; HSC; gene marking; FV gene transfer to HSCs; gene therapy alternatives; serotype; high-throughput sequencing; replication kinetics; cytopathic effect; reverse transcriptase activity; miRNA expression; virus-host-interaction; miRNA target gene identification; innate immunity; ANKRD17; Bif1 (SH3GLB1); replication in vitro
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Publication date and placeBasel, Switzerland, 2021