Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services
van Noordwijk, Meine (editor)
As a dynamic interface between agriculture and forestry, agroforestry has only recently been formally recognized as a relevant part of land use with ‘trees outside forest’ in important parts of the world—but not everywhere yet. The Sustainable Development Goals have called attention to the need for the multifunctionality of landscapes that simultaneously contribute to multiple goals. In the UN decade of landscape restoration, as well as in response to the climate change urgency and biodiversity extinction crisis, an increase in global tree cover is widely seen as desirable, but its management by farmers or forest managers remains contested. Agroforestry research relates tree–soil–crop–livestock interactions at the plot level with landscape-level analysis of social-ecological systems and efforts to transcend the historical dichotomy between forest and agriculture as separate policy domains. An ‘ecosystem services’ perspective quantifies land productivity, flows of water, net greenhouse gas emissions, and biodiversity conservation, and combines an ‘actor’ perspective (farmer, landscape manager) with that of ‘downstream’ stakeholders (in the same watershed, ecologically conscious consumers elsewhere, global citizens) and higher-level regulators designing land-use policies and spatial zoning.
Keywordscarbon storage; cacao agroforestry; farmer tree preference; utility value; entrainment; erosion; forest conversion; overland flow; soil macroporosity; throughfall; water balance; boundary work; ecohydrology; forest–water–people nexus; landscape approach; participatory methods; scenario evaluation; social-ecological systems; tropical forests; assisted natural regeneration (ANR); co-investment; ecosystem services; environmental stewardship; equity; forest and landscape restoration (FLR); rights-based approach; tree planting; water; coffee; fruit trees; index of root anchoring; slope stability; soil shear strength; root length density; root tensile strength; agroforestry; carbon sequestration; climate change mitigation; grazing management; land restoration; nationally determined contribution; silvopastoral; tree cover; cocoa agroforestry; climate adaptation; soil restoration; soil organic carbon; soil macro-porosity; soil water availability; inceptisols; Fraxinus dimorpha; soil chemical characteristics; mycorrhizal attributes; traditional ecological knowledge; anastomosis; agroforest; silvopasture; economics; financial analysis; carbon payment; Peru; innovation transfer; trimming; intention; participatory and integrative research-extension; stakeholders; adaptation; Kisumu; Bungoma; payment for ecosystem services; village savings and loan associations; fruit tree-based agroforestry; economic benefits; farmer perspectives; resource competition; systems improvement; uptake and expansion; cost-benefit analysis; landscape restoration; global; stocktake; agroforestry coffee; shade tree species; pairwise ranking; Vietnam; trees on farm; options by context; on-farm planned comparison; tree seedling survival; agriculture sector; cost efficiency; land suitability; potential expansion areas; representative concentration pathway; cocoa; Java; livelihoods; rural–urban; remittances; returning migrants; Sumatra; Sulawesi; certification; deforestation; palm oil; forest classification; Jambi; legality; independent smallholders; agroforestry concessions; West Kalimantan; land-use change; belowground biodiversity; soil engineers; Pontoscolex corethrurus; natural habitats; planted forest; artesian wells; Oryza; paddy cultivation; restoration; rodents; sustainable intensification; Mount Bromo-Tengger; coinvestment; instrumental values; landscape; relational values; social–ecological systems; stewardship; sustainable development goals (SDGs); trees; n/a
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Publication date and placeBasel, Switzerland, 2021
Research & information: general