This book covers the different aspects of non-flavivirus encephalitises of different ethiology. The first section of the book considers general problems of epidemiology such as study of zoonotic and animal vectors of encephalitis causative agents and methods and approaches for encephalitis zoonoses investigations. The members of different virus species are known to be the causative agents of encephalitis, so the second section of the book is devoted to these viral pathogens, their epidemiology, pathology, diagnostics and molecular mechanisms of encephalitis development by such viruses as HIV/SIV, herpes simplex virus type 1 and equine herpesvirus 9, measles virus, coronaviruses, alphaviruses and rabies virus. The next section of the book concerns the study of protozoan pathogens such as toxoplasma and amoebae. The last section of the book is devoted to multicellular pathogen as human Filaria Loa Loa - a filarial worm restricted to the West Africa.