Lignocellulosic Precursors Used in the Synthesis of Activated Carbon - Characterization Techniques and Applications in the Wastewater Treatment
Virginia Hernandez Montoya
Adrian Bonilla Petriciolet
The present book discusses the principal lignocellulosic precursors used in the elaboration of activated carbons in different countries such as Asia, America, Europe and Africa; the different methods and experimental conditions employed in the synthesis of activated carbons, including one analysis of the principal stages of the preparation such as carbonization and activation (i.e., chemical or physical activation). Also, the recent and more specialized techniques used in the characterization of activated carbons are discussed in this book. For example, the techniques employed to determine textural parameters (mercury porosimetry and gas adsorption isotherms at 77 K) and different spectroscopies to determine chemical functionality (Raman, FT-IR, etc.) and other X-Ray techniques. Additionally, an overview of the application of activated carbons obtained from lignocellulosic precursors for wastewater treatment. Specifically, the analysis and discussion are focused on the advantages and capabilities of activated carbons for the removal of relevant toxic compounds and pollutants from water such as heavy metals, dyes, phenol, etc. Finally, the use of pyrolysis method for the valorization of two Mexican typical agricultural wastes (orange peel and pecan nut shell) for energy and carbon production is considered in this book.