HIV Infection in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment and Some of Its Associated Complications
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a complex illness affecting the immune system. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an advanced form of HIV infection in which the patient has developed opportunistic infections or certain types of cancer and/or the CD4+ T cell count has dropped below 200/μL. More than 40 million persons around the world are infected with HIV, with approximately 14,000 new infections every day. The disease causes 3 million deaths worldwide each year, 95% of them in developing countries. Optimal management of human immunodeficiency virus requires strict adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens, but the complexity of these regimens (e.g., pill burden, food requirements, drug interactions, and severe adverse effects) limits effective treatment. However, more patients with HIV are surviving longer today because of these drugs. This allows further study of commonly associated adverse effects. These may affect all body systems and range from serious toxicities to uncomfortable but manageable events. This book reviews some of HAART-related metabolic and neurological complications.