Goat science covers quite a wide range and varieties of topics, from genetics and breeding, via nutrition, production systems, reproduction, milk and meat production, animal health and parasitism, etc., up to the effects of goat products on human health. In this book, several parts of them are presented within 18 different chapters. Molecular genetics and genetic improvement of goats are the new approaches of goat development. Several factors affect the passage rate of digesta in goats, but for diet properties, goats are similar to other ruminants. Iodine deficiency in goats could be dangerous. Assisted reproduction techniques have similar importance in goats like in other ruminants. Milk and meat production traits of goats are almost equally important and have significant positive impacts on human health. Many factors affect the health of goats, heat stress being of increasing importance. Production systems could modify all of the abovementioned characteristics of goats.